The study also showed that vets with PTSD and a drug abuse disorder had been five times much more likely to get opioid than people with no mental wellness disorder. The authors claimed that most of the issues resulted from having less professionals prepared to cope with soldiers returning from war. Most VA primary treatment clinicians lack specialized training in the management of comorbid pain and PTSD, they wrote. The study brings essential focus on the complexity of this problem, said Dr. William Becker, a Yale University instructor and primary care doctor who treats drug abuse and has worked with veterans. Patients are usually younger individuals who are in many cases sort of struggling to find their feet once again after returning home from war, he said. The ideal treatment includes behavioral guidance, therapy for war wounds and management of chronic pain.That means that they had systolic blood circulation pressure between 140 and 159 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood circulation pressure between 90 and 99 mm Hg. Over 12 years, there have been 60 heart or circulation-related events – – incidents such as for example heart strokes or attacks – – among the participants. About 80 % had been heart attacks, as the others included strokes, peripheral artery disease and kidney failure. Compared to those that didn’t drink coffee, the risk of these events was 4 times higher among the heavy espresso drinkers and 3 x higher in moderate espresso drinkers. Moderate coffee drinking was defined as one to three cups of the caffeinated beverage each day, while heavy consumption was defined as four or even more cups daily. Drinking coffee also elevated the chance of prediabetes – – a precursor to type 2 diabetes – – in some of the participants.